PENDIDIKAN YANG MENCERAHKAN

September 3rd, 2009

Tanpa revolusi dunia pendidikan, pembangunan manusia Indonesia yang adil dan beradab menuju kehancuran. Utamanya revolusi cara berpikir untuk menghadirkan pendidikan yang mencerahkan. Pendidikan dimaknai sebagai upaya untuk membantu manusia mencapai realitas diri dengan mengoptimalkan semua potensi kemanusiaannya. Dengan pengertian ini, semua proses yang menuju pada terwujudnya optimalisasi potensi manusia, tanpa memandang tempat dan waktu, dikategorikan sebagai kegiatan pendidikan. Sebaliknya, jika ada praktek yang katanya disebut pendidikan ternyata justru menghambat berkembangnya potensi kemanusiaan dengan berbagai bentuknya, maka ini bukan praktek pendidikan. Pada dasarnya tujuan murid mempelajari segala ilmu pengetahuan dalam mengikuti proses pendidikan pada masa sekarang adalah untuk mencapai kesempurnaan dan keutamaan jiwanya (Al-Ghazali, 1961). Pendidikan bukan sekedar proses penanaman nilai-nilai moral untuk membentengi diri dari ekses negatif globalisasi. Tetapi yang paling penting adalah bagaimana nilai-nilai moral yang telah ditanamkan dalam proses pendidikan tersebut mampu berperan sebagai kekuatan pembebas (liberating force) dari himpitan kemiskinan, kebodohan, keterbelakangan sosial budaya dan ekonomi. Inilah yang dimaksudkan oleh Syafi’i Ma’arif sebagai pendidikan Islam. Pendidikan tidak dibangun melalui proses yang doktriner mekanistik, melainkan keterlibatan aktif para pendidik dan peserta didik melakukan ‘dialog’ memberi warna dan makna terhadap suatu kajian tertentu. Pendidikan membebaskan peserta didik dari sekat primordial dan menumbuhkan sikap kebersamaan dalam kebhinekaan. Keadaan semacam ini mendorong tercapainya pengembangan peserta didik agar tahu bagaimana menghargai perbedaan dan peka terhadap nilai-nilai kemanusiaan universal. Lebih jauh, peserta didik akan terinspirasi untuk menghormati martabat tanpa syarat sebagai sesuatu yang melekat (inheren) dan tak bisa diganggu gugat (inviolable). Bila nilai pendidikan semacam ini tak bisa dicapai, maka yang muncul dari keniscayaan pluralitas masyarakat justru akan menimbulkan sikap-sikap amoral, intolerant, banalitas, anarkisme, dan anti kemanusiaan. Sebagai contoh, keterlibatan anak muda dalam peristiwa bom bunuh diri yang menimbulkan kerusakan dan kematian orang lain karena suatu doktrin tertentu sebagai alasannya. Hal semacam ini mengindikasikan pendidikan belum mampu membimbing peserta didik untuk lebih toleran terhadap keberagaman, berlomba dalam kebajikkan, atau sebagai sumber kebijaksanaan dalam masyarakat. Mengapa (?), karena pendidikan yang dikembangkan bukan pendidikan yang mencerahkan. Mengharapkan peserta didik mampu menangkal dari doktrin anti kemanusiaan (atau doktrin terorisme) melalui pendidikan anti terorisme sama dengan ‘menggantang asap’. Sikap anti kemanusiaan tidak dapat ditangkal dengan cara instan ketika keadaan pendidikan masih menghadapi pemiskinan berpikir dan pembodohan berperilaku. Banyak aspek yang harus digarap, namun mulailah dari lingkungan terkecil yakni keluarga. Kemudian pendidikan formal disekolah-sekolah melengkapinya dengan materi-materi ilmu pengetahuan yang memberi manfaat nyata bagi kehidupan bermasyarakat (contextual). Materi Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial (IPS) membekali kesadaran akan pluralitas sosial kemasyarakatan, memaknai peran kepahlawanan dalam mencapai kemerdekaan dan memahami hakikat negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia sebagai negaranya. Demikian pula halnya Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam (IPA) membekali kesadaran akan pentingnya kedudukan manusia terhadap alam dan lingkungannya sehingga tumbuh sikap memeliharanya. Dan tidak kalah penting Pendidikan Agama mampu membekali kesadaran kolektif yang positif berdasarkan nilai kasih sayang (Ar-Rahman; Ar-Rahim) dan penghargaan terhadap kemanusiaan dan kehidupan. Semua ini didukung oleh contoh-contoh perilaku baik oleh para pemimpin, tokoh masyarakat dan guru-guru kita. Guru hadir sebagai agen perubahan dan rekonsiliasi yang kreatif mempraktekkan hidup damai dalam kebhinekaan di masyarakat. Guru tidak saja menjadi pengajar (teacher) namun juga berperan sebagai pembelajar (learner). Ia tidak hanya pandai dalam ilmu pengetahuan (smart teacher) dan sukses membangun perilaku (success learner) namun juga harus mencerahkan jiwa (delight learner). Pendidikan semacam inilah kiranya yang akan mampu membebaskan dari pemiskinan berpikir dan pembodohan perilaku, atau disebut pendidikan yang mencerahkan.

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